Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group) is of vegetables that includes cabbage into the tribe or the Brassicaceae. Broccoli comes from the Mediterranean Sea and has been cultivated since the days of Ancient Greece. These vegetables also went to Indonesia not long ago (around the 1970s) and now quite popular as a food ingredient
The edible parts of broccoli are green flower heads arranged a meeting like tree branches with thick stems. Most of these flower heads surrounded by foliage. Broccoli is a plant that lives in cold weather. Broccoli with cauliflower-like, but broccoli is green while the white cauliflower.
Broccoli is known as a family type of vegetable cabbage (Cruciferae), which have the characteristics of leaves and flower-shaped vase. The flowers are in bunches emerging from the tip of the stem or bud. Cruciferae or Brassicaceae vegetables include several genera including cabbage, mustard greens, mustard greens and turnips.
The selection is good broccoli green broccoli, fresh, smooth trunked with tough leaves, bongol head intact, and have a group shoot buds that are still dark green or green purplefish.
Healthy Ways Nutrition and Ingredients Broccoli Processing
Cauliflower and broccoli sprouts are a family but in broccoli contains more nutrients than other vegetables. Broccoli contains more vitamin C and beta carotene is an antioxidant that is very important. In the United States of broccoli has become the favorite vegetables in healthy compared to cauliflower, cabbage, and other green vegetables.
Nutritional Table brokloli ½ cup fresh ripe already
Calories 23 grams
2.4 grams fiber
2.3 grams protein
4.3 mg Karbohidarat
Vitamin C 49 mg
Vitamin A 5 mg
Folic Acid 53.3 nanograms
Calcium 89 mg
0.9 mg iron
Sodium 15 mg
Other chemical constituents contained in broccoli: containing folic acid (vitamin B member) that serves a sense of stress, a sense of panic, anxiety, even though major depression. Also contains minerals and various vitamins (A, C, E, vitamins, riboflavin, nikotinamide). Other substances contained in broccoli is sulfur, in the form of glucosinolate, an antidote compounds, monoterpenes and genestein. Substances contained in broccoli is also useful as an antioxidant. While fiber is beneficial to prevent constipation and other intestinal disorders.
The investigators assess that broccoli and other green vegetables should be entered into the list of diet each week. Eating high antioxidant-containing foods may reduce the risk of cancer or heart attack. Half cup of cooked broccoli has consisted of as many nutrients from the phytochemical nutrients isothiocyanates.
Before consumption, wash the broccoli in cold tap water. Never immerse the broccoli in water because it will reduce the amount of nutrients. Fresh broccoli is delicious when served raw or cooked in advance. Overcooked broccoli cooking can make a very strong sulfur. Steam the broccoli for 3-4 minutes or boiled approximately one inch above the water boiling in roughly the same as above, but you have to wash it first with salt water so the worms vegetable broccoli stuck in can come loose.
Try to cook the broccoli so that the colors remain bright green. Cooking broccoli overcooked broccoli will make a blackish green and eliminate nutrient levels, especially vitamin C.
Frozen broccoli (frozen)
Frozen broccoli (frozen) is the best way to create a more durable and fresh broccoli. Broccoli and all other types of broccoli should be cleaned with boiling water before freezing. Vegetables are not washed beforehand contain active ingredients that can cause the broccoli enzyme is becoming harder and nutrition also will be lost during the freeze. Cleaning broccoli beforehand can slow the growth of enzyme activity.
Freezing does not affect the quality of each vegetable. Freezing actually can add unwanted characters. Choose broccoli that has been grown with good condition and prepared to be frozen immediately. Broccoli had chosen to eat their quality will get the maximum results to be frozen. Here is how to preserve the frozen broccoli.
1. Prepare small and large container with a lid and adequate size, enter the 5 liters of water to boiling.
2. Meanwhile, wash broccoli, cut the stems down to the end of the blossoms are not more than 1 inch in length.
3. Enter your broccoli into boiling water and immediately cover with the meeting. Wash the broccoli should be no more than 0.5 kg.
4. Simmer for 3-4 minutes.
5. Prepare washing with ice water in the container size of 5 liters or water that flows in the basin.
6. Remove broccoli with a fork or the basket strainer and drain.
7. Enter the broccoli in a plastic bag is a bit thick, try not too much air intake. Do not forget to include the date on each bag and stored at a temperature of 17o C or lower. Broccoli you can hold for one year.
Broccoli Prevent Cancer
In America in the year 2002 as many as 189 000 patients diagnosed and known in the same year there were approximately 30 200 patients died from prostate cancer. The amount is equal to 10 times the number of victims of the collapse of the WTC in New York. Treatment can be done with radiotherapy. Physicians and patients prefer to use the way of radiation, but the radiotherapy equipment is still quite expensive.
Scientists from Ohio State University in the United States managed to isolate an active anticancer isothiocyanates content in the broccoli. Testing in the laboratory showed the active ingredient which is formed from glucosinolates when ingested inhibits cancer cell growth.
During six years of research conducted by experts at Harvard State University and Ohio State University found men who eat broccoli twice a week or more during the low possibility of bladder cancer than those who only eat broccoli once a week.
We started to watch what compound in broccoli could inhibit or slow the growth of cancer cells, "said Steven Schwartz, professor of food technology from Ohio State University. Schwartz and his colleagues then isolated compounds called glucosinolates from broccoli sprouts. At the time chewing and then ingested, this phytochemical turned into isothiocyanates, compounds that are trusted by the scientists can play a role in inhibiting cancer cell growth.
Evidently, at least in laboratory tests, isothiocyanates inhibit cancer cell growth and the biggest effect occurs in bladder cancer cells and most aggressive. First extract and measure the amount content of glucosinolates from broccoli sprouts. Then they convert glucosinolates to isothiocyanates using an enzyme process. "Naturally, young broccoli does contain phytochemical concentrations higher than broccoli that has been growing up, but it takes a great broccoli also provide benefits for health," says Schwartz.
Steven Schwartz and his colleagues provide glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in particular the number of cancer cells into three types: two types of human bladder cancer cells and one type of mouse cancer cells. Scientists already know the active ingredients are isothiocyanates, but they also want to know whether the glucosinolates to give effect to the growth of cancer cells. Glucosinolates compounds apparently had no impact on cancer cells.
While isothiocyanates shown to decrease the growth of three kinds of cancer cells in the experiment, the strongest influence actually occurs in human cancer cells are most malignant. Experts are not sure what the cause or exactly how these compounds keep cancer cells do not grow. The research team is not convinced that the isothiocyanates were the only compound in broccoli that work as anticancer.
Steven Schwartz's suspicions proved, the results of research IRF (Institute of Food Research) British shows, green broccoli, having other chemical compounds in addition to isothiocyanates, the compound called sulforaphane that can reliably withstand sustained effects of cancer. If we can produce broccoli with high quality, the chemical elements mentioned above will also be useful capacity and larger. "Eating broccoli with high levels of sulforaphane, the possibility of more cancer patients could at least have the potential for pain," said Professor Richard Mithen of the IRF Research Coordinator for the UK.
Other research undertaken James D. Brooks and colleagues, entitled potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by sulforaphane showed that sulforaphane causes expression of phase 2 enzymes and activate them in human prostate cells. This research could help explain the lower risk of prostate cancer in men who consume a lot of Cruciferae family vegetables, especially broccoli.
Another study by Dr. Dharlimantha Setiawan, in his book entitled 'Medicine Plant Indonesian Atlas Volume 2' represents the broccoli nutritious speed healing and prevent disease and inhibit growth of cancer cells in the body. Especially in cancer-related hormones, such as breast cancer in women, and prostate cancer that threatens men.
Another benefit, broccoli capable of preventing stroke is evident through epidemiological research team from Harvard University. Plants suitable to grow in the highlands is very good consumed by people with diabetes. The content of chromium and fiber may regulate blood sugar levels. Broccoli strengthen bone cells. Consume him since his youth, prevent bone disease (esteoporosis) in old age. Broccoli is also efficacious blocking of skin diseases such as abscesses or boils. Improving the working power of the brain. If you are prone to skin infections, no doubt, perbayaklah eating broccoli
Cancer is one of the degenerative diseases that require special attention. Because most patients with this disease ends with death. In Indonesia within the last 10 years an increase in cancer ranks as the cause of death, namely from-12 sequence to be ranked sixth.
It is estimated that every year there were 190 000 new patients and a fifth of whom died. A study reported the incidence of cancer in the world in the year 1999 approximately 10 million new cases, and about seven million of them ending in death.
Understanding of Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability of these cells to invade other biological networks, either by direct growth in adjacent tissue (invasion) or by migration of cells to distant places (metastasis). Cells that continually divide and reproduce themselves, for example contained in skin cells, gastric epithelial cells, digestive tract and lungs.
Uncontrolled growth is caused by damage to DNA, causing mutations (changes in the genetic material DNA / RNA) in vital genes that control cell division. Some fruit mutation may be required to change normal cells into cancer cells. These mutations are often caused by:
1. Physical or chemical compounds known as carcinogens (cancer-causing compounds).
2. Occurred spontaneously (obtained) or inherited (germline mutations).
3. A very intense relationship with the environment, such as air and food, while the shift in traditional diets provide a bad influence on health, particularly countries that have higher incomes.
Cancer can cause many different symptoms, depending on its location and character of the malignancy and whether there is metastasis. A decisive diagnosis usually requires microscopic examination of tissue obtained by biopsy. Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy and / or radiation.
Common type of cancer that attacks the lungs, stomach, breast, colon, mouth, and pharinx, liver, cervix, esophagus, prostate, lymphoma, kidney and leukemia.
If untreated, most cancers cause death, cancer is one of the main causes of death in developing countries. Most cancers can be treated and many cured, especially if treatment starts early. Many forms of cancer associated with environmental factors that could have been avoided. Tobacco smoking can cause cancers of many other environmental factors.
Tumors (Latin; swelling) appoint an abnormal tissue mass, but can be a "malignant" (cancerous) or "benign" (not cancerous). Only malignant tumors are capable of attacking
Programme World Health Organization (WHO) sparked a slogan 'back to nature, "ie, efforts to search for, researching and using natural botanical ingredients to overcome various degenerative diseases or noninfeksi which appears in many communities.
Various ways have been done to overcome the problem of human cancer. Researchers from several disciplines began to try to use natural chemicals in the form of antitumor compounds have many phytochemicals in plants and known as "Cancer Chemoprevention" or prevention of cancer.
Cancer prevention using phytochemical compounds is one of efforts to use natural chemicals which are expected to prevent the early stages of a carcinogen, before going further spread.
Criteria for selection of chemical compounds used as "Chemoprevention" very different from the compounds used as chemotherapy. Chemotherapy compounds are often used to kill cells, both cancer cells and normal cells are less healthy. But the results even less good effect on patients.
Conversely compounds "Chemoprevention" used as an anticancer generally non-toxic and relatively free of other bad influences.
Antioxidants For Cancer
Positive role of antioxidants to fight the disease caused by atherosclerosis are quite often discussed. Based on these observations, today issued recommendations to eat more vegetables and fruits to avoid degenerative diseases.
Unsaturated fats are the biggest part of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, the major cholesterol carrier lipoprotein in blood plasma), and oxidation of these fats that cause atherosclerosis. Modification of LDL by oxidized LDL oxidation would produce that is not recognized by LDL receptors, but was known by the macrophages. Intake of oxidized LDL by macrophages would lead to accumulation of cholesterol and forming foam cells that eventually lead to atherosclerosis. Prevention of atherosclerosis can be done with the inhibition of LDL oxidation using antioxidants. Antioxidants can play a role in protecting the Low / Very Low Density Lipoprotin (LDL and VLDL) from the oxidation reaction.
For cancer, many scientists are specialists who agree that the disease originated from the mutation of genes or DNA of cells. Changes in gene mutation can occur through the mechanism of replication errors and genetic errors that ranged from 10-15%, or external factors that alter the structure of DNA such as viruses, pollution, radiation, and Xenobiotic compounds from food consumption by 80-85%. Free radical oxidation chain reaction and produced a clear role in the process of this mutation.
Free radicals are molecules that have electrons are not complete, so that becomes reactive. Free radicals our bodies due to exposure to unhealthy environmental situations, such as exposure to cigarette smoke and fumes of motor vehicles, chemicals, as well as sports and excessive food consumption.
These electrons strike illegal and damaging the DNA of normal molecules. This damage that causes cancer. Therefore, before the wild electrons destroy normal cells, we must prepare to confront and antioxidant forces incapacitate
Mechanisms of cancer activity with chemical compounds can be through three ways, namely:
* Inhibit carcinogenesis bioaktifikasi
* Block the formation of malignant cells lines (blocking agents) such as antioxidants
* Suppressing and manipulating hormone
The antioxidant activity than can prevent autooksidasi that produce free radicals can also suppress proliferation (multiplication) of cancer cells. Given the various types of cancer cells, then test the effectiveness of antioxidants is also diverse and specific to a particular case.
Experts believe that vegetables, fruits and grains may help prevent cancer and reduce the risk of tumors. Upon closer examination turned out components in vegetable foodstuffs that are vitamins, minerals, fiber and Phy-kimia.Untuk was one cancer research center at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and the European School of Oncology Task Force on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer recommended to consume enough fruits and vegetables to prevent cancer. Phy-chemical has been proven to prevent colon cancer, breast and colon and stomach. There are a lot of isoflavones in soybean, ginseng, fruits and vegetables can lower the risk of getting breast cancer.
Oxidative stress is a state of imbalance between prooksidan and antioxidants. State of oxidative stress can actually be induced by various factors, among others, is the lack of antioxidants or excess production of free radicals. Free radicals are actually produced physiologically by the cells as a logical consequence of biochemical reactions in aerobic life. However, when excessive free radicals and antioxidant cellular fixed amount or less, then the excess free radicals can not be neutralized and will result in damage to the cell itself. Oxidative stress conditions that result in cell damage, can cause accelerated aging process, and can cause heart disease, cancer and diabetes mellitus.
Isothiocyanates and sulforaphane
Isothiocyanates is one of the chemical compounds of plant origin (phytochemicals) that have a sulfur element with a general formula R-NCS. There is a different element in the group of isothiocyanates with the most powerful anti-cancer effect is phenylethylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate, and three-phenylpropylisothiocyanate.
Isothiocyanates can be found in the group of Cruciferae vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard greens, and cabbage. Glucosinolates are precursors (raw materials) of isothiocyanates. When chewed raw vegetables, the cells would be destroyed and will ezim myrosinase hydrolyzes glucosinolates to isothiocyanates.
Isothiocyanates trigger cancer by excreting attack, reduce the toxic effects, and stimulates the secretion of carcinogens. Isothiocyanates act by inhibiting cell multiplication and induces disease-causing cells. In addition to prostate cancer, other studies have shown that isothiocyanates help prevent lung cancer and throat. Isothiocyanates may also lower the risk of other cancers, including gastric cancer, and colon.
Research at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore on the metabolism of isothiocyanates show, isothiocyanates six times more often than glucosinolates found naturally. Isothiocyanates also play a role in providing distinctive taste of this vegetable group.
Your browser may not be able to display this image.
Sulforaphane or (R)-1-isothiocyanto-4-methyl-sulfonyl butane is one of the phytochemical family of isothiocyanates because they have the NCS structure. Sulforaphane has baerat molecules / molecule weigh (MW): 177 and has
Molecular formula / Formula: C6H11NOS2. Sulforaphane found in plants into sugar molecules bind to sulforaphane glucosinolate. Only after sulforaphane be eaten separately from the sugar molecule. Same as isothiocyanates, sulforaphane glucosinolate found in the group of Cruciferae vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard and cabbage. However, sulforaphane found in broccoli sprouts at most.
Epidemiological research shows that people who consume a lot of indication Cruciferae family vegetables can reduce cancer risk. Tests on animals, show by eating vegetables Cruciferae reduce the frequency, size and number of tumor cells. When attacking cancer cells, our body produces an enzyme called phase 2 enzymes.
Sulforaphane induces the formation of phase 2 enzyme. Thus, the carcinogen can be neutralized before destroying DNAm and also inhibit the formation changes benzo [a] Pyrene-and 1.6-dinitropyrene DNA-DNA. Strength of induction-phase-2 enzymes in human cells determined by sulforaphane. Sulforaphane can also inhibit the extra cells, intra-cell, and antarsel in preventing resistance of Helicobacter pylori and induction of benzo-a-Pyrene that cause tumors in the stomach.
Sulforaphane also function as antioxidants and help lower blood pressure. Research conducted in Tokyo University of Agriculture show that people who ate 100 grams of broccoli sprouts each day for one week, reduced cholesterol levels in their blood.
Your browser may not be able to display this image.
Consuming a large portion of broccoli or broccoli with higher levels of sulforaphane, the cancer patients are usually more experienced minimal morbidity potential, said Coordinator of Research, Propfesor Richard Mithen, on the BBC website recently.
With high levels of sulforaphane in the form of precursors can also help prevent blisters severe disease and skin damage such as severe pemphigoid epidermolisis simplex.
Prescription Drugs Broccoli
To speed up the treatment or cure, broccoli can be eaten as a vegetable alone or cooked with other vegetables. To obtain optimal efficacy broccoli, processed them in a way encouraged blansir (briefly boiled) or consumed in the form of juice.
1. Accelerate Healing Disease
Provide a medium-size broccoli. Pieces as necessary. Then wash thoroughly. Cook water, After the water boils, blansir enter the broccoli for 2 minutes. After that remove and drain. Broccoli ready to eat with rice. (Note: Do not boil the broccoli for too long, because it can damage the usefulness).
2. Preventing Painful Menstruation
Eat broccoli that has been diblansir or in the form of juice, since three days before menstruation until menstruation ends.
Quote this article on your site
To create link towards this article on your website,
copy and paste the text below in your page.